Round table thematic science talks and discussions, set 4
Table 34: Bacterial membrane vesicles as cancer therapeutics
Location: Room 1
Leaders: Sun Nyunt Wai (MIMS), Felipe Cava (MIMS), Bernt Eric Uhlin (MIMS)
Bacteria constitutively release membrane vesicles (BMVs) both in vivo and in vitro. BMVs are effective long distance vehicles of multifunctional cargos, from DNA and RNA, to proteins and metabolites including several toxins and immune modulators. BMVs provide an attractive model for synthesis of encapsulated or surface expressed targeted protein for the molecular therapeutic machinery since it has already naturally been fully synthesized by the bacteria. In addition, obtaining a better understanding of the beneficial contribution of BMVs to potential protection against carcinogenesis is an important goal for future research. We will highlight the potential of BMVs as novel tools for nanoparticle-based targeted cancer therapeutics.
Table 35: Deep learning for image-based diagnostics
Location: Room 2
Leaders: Johan Lundin (FIMM), Dmitrii Bychkov (FIMM), Peter Horvath (FIMM)
Participants will hear briefly about extracting simpler and more complex image features used currently to perform image-based (often single-cell-based) machine learning aided decisions. The accuracy and ease of such methods will be compared with systems using deep convolutional networks to extract image features and process further with conventional machine learning systems. Examples will be given where classical methods fail and relevant breakthroughs are made by using deep learning. Also, to the contrary, examples will be discussed where deep learning did not provide significant improvement. Further, current applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence within a series of cancer research and digital diagnostic projects at FIMM will be presented.
Table 36: The funny Finnish population and its genetics
Location: Room 3
Leaders: Priit Palta (FIMM), Sini Kerminen (FIMM), Himanshu Chheda (FIMM)
The Finnish population is the largest genetic isolate in Europe. This provides specific opportunities to study genomic variation and its links to health outcomes. Come and learn about the peculiar population structure, variants enriched in the population, and the geographical distribution of genome-based disease risk in Finland.
Table 37: Host pathogen interaction
Location: Room 4
Leaders: Anna Överby (MIMS), Niklas Arnberg (MIMS), Denis Kainov (FIMM)
The focus of the discussion will be on different aspects of virus host cell interaction, for example: 1) what determines viral tropism? e.g receptors, 2) how does a cell respond to viral infection?, and 3) what are viruses doing to bypass the cellular response?
Table 38: Lessons learnt from murine lung cancer models: from in vivo to ex vivo
Location: Room 6
Leaders: Emmy Verschuren (FIMM), Jennifer Devlin (FIMM), Ashwini Nagaraj (FIMM)
The ongoing importance of preclinical animal models of human diseases is a key discussion in medical research, with the expansion of ex vivo modelling approaches representing a new direction to achieve translational impact in patients. Our modelling of non-small cell lung cancer driven by oncogenic Kras in vivo has generated new insights about how tumour cell-of-origin influences the histopathology spectrum as well as how tumour histotype dictates the immune microenvironment. In addition, our novel studies with ex vivo organotypic slice cultures has revealed spatially-distributed oncogenic signalling responses to strategic therapeutic combinations. Importantly, characterising changes between in vivo and ex vivo, previously lacking in many studies, is critical for evaluating the reliability of new ex vivo approaches for clinical insights.
Table 39: Two-photon imaging for understanding brain functions
Location: Room 10
Leaders: Keisuke Yonehara (DANDRITE), Ole Schwartz (DANDRITE), Rune Rasmussen (DANDRITE)
Two-photon microscopy opened up new avenues for imaging the activity of neurons in the brain of live animals. We will briefly overview recent progress on two-photon imaging techniques and discuss our efforts for understanding circuit mechanisms of visual computations by combining genetical, trans-synaptic viral, and two-photon imaging approaches.
Table 40: Stem cell applications for neurological disorders
Location: Room 11
Leaders: Mark Denham (DANDRITE), Katherine Gill (DANDRITE)
Stem cell reprogramming methods, which generate induced pluripotent stem cells, offer an attractive possibility to study disease mechanisms in a human context and with patient samples. We will present methods and strategies for modeling neurological disorders using patient derived stem cells.
Table 41: Clinical trial design in precision medicine
Location: Banquet Hall Side
Leaders: Kjetil Taskén (NCMM), Caroline Heckman (FIMM), Krister Wennerberg (FIMM)
Precision medicine is about understanding the (different) molecular causes for disease in each patient and tailor individualized therapeutic approaches. This concept implies that each patient has her or his disease and that it is one disease in each patient rather than in a group of patients. This concept challenges the way we have traditionally documented the effect of treatment with randomized placebo-controlled studies in evidence-based medicine, and we need other clinical trial designs to be able to continue to deliver evidence-based medicine.
Table 42: Grantsmanship
Leaders: Jaakko Kaprio (FIMM)
We will have an open discussion on the do’s and don’t’s of writing grant applications. The discussion will be applicable to researchers at all levels.
Table 43: High throughput screening toward personalized immunotherapy
Leaders: Markus Vähä-Koskela (FIMM), Ella Karjalainen (FIMM), Liye He (FIMM)
Harnessing the immune system to combat cancer is possible but not fully predictable. We discuss strategies to model tumor-immune interactions in vitro and show examples of functional assays, cytokine profiling and tumor cell surface image cytometry.
Table 44: Gut microbiome and blood-brain barrier (The gut flora, the additional organ)
Leaders: Irep Gözen (NCMM), J. Preben Morth (NCMM)
This table discussion is directed at understanding how the lipid environment influences membrane protein activity. We wish to discuss how to combine functional analysis of selected membrane systems in vitro with investigations of the dynamic fluctuations between lipid and protein in giant membrane vesicles and address lipid impact on activation and subcellular localization within the bacterial plasma membrane in vivo.